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Maternal and Infant Nutrition Briefs

A research-based newsletter prepared by the University of California for professionals interested in maternal and infant nutrition.

Issues Articles Type Date Added
Winter 2009 issue of Maternal and Infant Nutrition Briefs Dear colleagues, Attached is the Winter 2009 issue of Maternal and Infant Nutrition Briefs. The articles reviewed in this newsletter include the following: 1) Sleep Deprivation and Weight Loss in New Moms As many parents know, the arrival of a baby in the house often means less sleep for Mom. In this prospective study, sleep deprivation in mothers increased the risk of weight retention at one year postpartum. Source: Gunderson EP, Rifas-Shiman SL, Oken E et al. Association of fewer hours of sleep at six months postpartum with substantial weight retention at 1 year postpartum. Am J Epidem. 2007; 167: 178-187. 2 and 3) Findings from the Infant Feeding Practices Study: 2005-07 The Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration conducted the second Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS II) in 2005-07 to examine infant feeding choices in US women. In this national study of US mothers, the in-hospital practice of supplementing breastfeeding with formula was very common. Despite expert guidance to delay introduction of solid foods preferably to 6 months of age, 40% of the mothers were already giving solid foods to their babies at 4 months. Early introduction to solid food was associated with greater diet variety in later infancy but also less breastfeeding at 6 months. To maintain breastfeeding intensity after returning to work, mothers should be encouraged to use a strategy of direct feeding and/or pumping breast milk to give to the infant later. To extend the duration of breastfeeding, a strategy that includes direct feeding of the baby will likely have the largest impact. More research is needed among mothers from low socioeconomic and minority groups. Sources: Grummer-Strawn LM, Scanlon KS, Fein SB. Infant feeding and feeding transitions during the first year of life. Pediatrics 2008: 122: S36-S42 and Fein SB, Mandal B, Roe BE. Success of strategies for combining employment and breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2008; 122: S56- PDF 1/14/09
Summer 2007 -Effect of Prenatal DHA Supplements on Infant Behavior -Obesity Linked to Lower Breastfeeding Rates in Danish Mothers -Impact of Food Insecurity on Parenting and Infant Feeding Practices -Food Insecurity and Birth Defects PDF 8/25/08
March/April 2007 A new issue of Maternal and Infant Nutrition Briefs is now available. This newsletter is written by Dr. Lucia Kaiser, Community Nutrition Specialist at UC Davis. Highlights of the current issue are: Prenatal Weight Gain and Risk of Overweight in Children Excessive prenatal weight gain, in relation to the IOM guidelines, increases the risk of overweight in the offspring at three years of age. Other findings from this study suggest that the current IOM guidelines may need to be re-visited and possibly revised, particularly in populations where maternal obesity is prevalent. Source: Oken E, Taveras EM, Kleinman KP, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Gestational weight gain and child adiposity at age 3 years. Am J Obstet & Gynecol 2007; 196: 322.e1-322.e8 How Much Caffeine is Safe for Pregnant Women? In this randomized controlled trial, reducing caffeine intake in pregnant women to levels well below 300 mg daily does not appear to improve birth weight or length of gestation, except in women who smoke. Since the intervention took place after 18 weeks of gestation, the effects of reducing caffeine intake either pre-conception or during the first few weeks remain to be determined. Source: Bech BH, Obel C, Henriksen TB, Olsen J. Effect of reducing caffeine intake on birth weight and length of gestation: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2007: 334: 409 Available at http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/334/7590/409 Folate Status Worsens in US Women of Childbearing Age Folic intake is low, and folate status in US women of childbearing age appears to be deteriorating. The reasons for this trend are not clear and need to be determined. The impact on incidence of neural tube defects also needs to be examined. Sources: Yang Q, Carter HK, Mulinare J, Berry RJ, Friedman JM, Erickson JD. Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutr PDF 6/16/08
November/December 2006 -Do pregnant teens need to get their calicuim from the dairy group? -Fruit juice is related to weight gainin young children -Dietary intake at 4 months of life predicts risk of overweight -A mother's perspective on insufficient milk PDF 1/3/08
September/October 2006 Exclusive Breast-feeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risk No Effect of Zinc Supplements on Growth of Breastfed Infants Glycemic Index and Pregnancy Outcomes Should Pregnant Women Take Fish Oil Supplements PDF 11/8/10
July/August 2006 -New Growth Charts for Infants and Young Children -Federal Government Proposes Changes in WIC Foods -What Fruits and Vegatables Do WIC Participants Buy? PDF 5/29/10
January / February 2002 - Infant Weight Gain and Later Childhood Overweight - Risk Factors for Mastitis - Does Exercise During Late Pregnancy Affect Birth Outcomes? - Long-term Follow-up of Very Low Birth Weight Infants PDF 12/1/08
March / April 2002 - Effect of WIC Services on Postpartum Women - Introducing Solids: Effect of Timing on Mother and Baby - An Update on Juice in Young Children - Guidelines for Managing Diabetes during Pregnancy PDF 7/27/10
May / June 2002 - Television Viewing Habits of WIC Children and Overweight - Sorting Through Studies of Breastfeeding and Intelligence - Getting a Handle on Alcohol and Drug Use During Pregnancy - First Trimester Weight Gain is Related to Birth Weight PDF 11/8/10
July / August 2002 - Excessive Prenatal Weight Gain Increases Rick of Obesity - Prenatal Exposure to Lead and Infant Development - Breastfeeding Lowers Risk of Breast Cancer - A Woman's Own Birth Weight is Linked to Gestational Diabetes PDF 11/8/10
September / October 2002 - ADA Position Paper on Nutrition and Lifestyle during Pregnancy - Is Calcium Protective in Women with Low Exposure to Lead? - Safety Issues Related to Powdered Infant Formula PDF 11/8/10
November / December 2002 - Defining Iron Deficiency in Infants - Recent Trends in Breast-feeding Rates - Do Early Food Experiences make a Difference? - Should Breast-fed Infants be Given Iron? - Iron Supplements for Pregnant Women: Weekly or Daily? PDF 11/8/10
January/February 2003 - Defining Iron Deficiency in Infants - No Effect of Exercise on Immune Properties of Breast Milk - Barriers to Control of Phenylketonuria in Pregnancy - Breastfeeding and Increased Rick of Allergy and Asthma PDF 11/8/10
March / April 2003 - New Guidelines on Vitamin D Intake - Prenatal Fatty Acid Supplements Increase Children's IQ - Does Maternal Obesity Increase Risk of Breast-feeding Failure? - Poor Fetal Growth Effects on Lean Body Mass PDF 11/8/10
May / June 2003 - Are Breastfed Infants Less Likely to Become Overweight? - What Predicts Prenatal Weight Gain? - Portion Size Influences Food Intake of Young Children - Formula Intake and Blood Pressure in Young Adults PDF 11/8/10
July / August 2003 - Should Pregnant Women Wean Their Toddlers? - Iron in Low-Doese Effective in Preventing Anemia in Pregnancy - Strategies to Prevent Food Allergy in Infants and Children PDF 11/8/10
September / October 2003 - Early Introduction of Cereal and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes - Does Breastfeeding Help Mothers Lose Weight? - Effects of High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diets during Pregnancy PDF 8/13/08
November / December 2003 - Zinc Intake of US Preschoolers Exceeds Requirements - Glycemic Index and Increased Risk of Neural Tube Defects - Anemia and Postpartum Depression - Rapid Infant Weight Gain is Related to Obesity in Adults PDF 4/11/08
January / February 2004 - What are Infants and Toddlers Eating? - Comparions of Feeding Patterns to Recommendations - Preventing Excessive Weight Gain during Pregnancy PDF 7/27/10
March / April 2004 - Does Exercise Reduce the Risk of Gestational Diabetes? - Effects of Early vs. Late Introduction to Solids on Iron Status - Development of Food Preferences in Infancy - Are Live Probiotic Bacteria Safe for Infants? PDF 7/27/10
Sept / Oct 2004 - How Effective is Peer Counseling to Promote Breastfeeding? - Current Use of Folic Acid amoung U.S. Women - Effect of Parental Feeding Styles on Children's Weight - How Does Storage of Breast Milk Affect Antioxidants? PDF 11/8/10
November / December 2004 - Bed Rest Linked to Bone Loss during Pregnancy. - Breastfeeding Reduces Risk of Childhool Leukemia - Changes in Diet Quality from 1977 to 1998 among US Preschoolers. - Mother's Weight, Infant Feeding Patterns, and Growth at One Year. PDF 11/8/10
January/February 2005 - Early Growth of Children at High Risk of Obesity - New Recommendations from AAP on Breastfeeding - Is the DRI for Added Sugar Too High for Preschoolers? - Neighborhood Stores and Diet Quality of Pregnant Women PDF 11/8/10
March / April 2005 -Weight Gain in the First Week of Life and Overweight in Adults - Overweight and Sweet Drink Consumption in Preschoolers -Bottle Use Associated with Increased Risk of Candida Infections - Vitamin C to Prevbent Prematrue Rapture of Membranes PDF 11/8/10
July / August 2005 - Nutrition and Growth in Infants with Allergy to Cow's Milk - Effect of Folic Acid Fortifucation on Neural Tube Defects in Minorities - Early Rick Factors of Childhood Obesity - Childhood Obesity: Another Reason Not to Smoke - Perchlorate in the News PDF 11/8/10